New occurrence or a historical outbreak.

New occurrence or a historical outbreak.

Discuss whether the steps of outbreak investigation from this week’s reading were followed in the investigation of the outbreak that you selected.

Read These articles:
• Article: Ghosh, T. S., Patnaik, J. L., Alden, N. B., & Vogt, R. L. (2008). Internet-versus telephone-based local outbreak investigations. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 14(6), 975-977.

This research study examines the effectiveness of conducting Internet-based outbreak investigations. Researchers found many benefits to the Internet surveys, including similar response rates and high participant satisfaction.
• Article: Molbak, K. (2004). Spread of resistant bacteria and resistance genes from animals to humans- The public health consequences. Journal of Veterinary Medicine Series B, 51(8/9), 364-369.
This article provides a good example of how epidemiology is used to determine cause and effect along with how outbreak investigations informed the research study.
• Article: Reingold, A. L. (1998). Outbreak investigations: A perspective. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 4(1), 21-28.

In this article, Reingold discusses the importance of outbreak investigations. He argues for the need to conduct research through epidemiologic and environmental investigations, as such research can help identify the sources of an outbreak and help prevent future instances.
• Article: Selman, C. A., & Green, L. R. (2008). Environmental health specialists’ self-reported foodborne illness outbreak investigation practices. Journal of Environmental Health, 70(6), 16-21.

This article examines the difficulties of outbreak investigations conducted by environmental health specialists with respect to food-borne illness. Six focus groups of environmental health specialists discuss their outbreak investigation practices.
Optional Activities
• Shoe-Leather Epidemiology: A Guided Tour

This video on outbreak investigation, sponsored by the University of Albany School of Public Health, presents the fundamentals of epidemiology and outbreak investigation through an actual investigation. Part of their Third Tuesday Breakfast Broadcast (T2B2) program, this video walks you through the initial identification of the outbreak through to its conclusion.
• Introduction to Outbreak Investigation

This module from the Northwest Center for Public Health Practice explores how to determine if you have an outbreak, how to investigate the outbreak, and then how to communicate the findings to the public.
• Basic Infectious Disease Concepts in Epidemiology

Also from the Northwest Center for Public Health Practice, this module focuses on what public health professionals need to understand about epidemiology. Work through this interactive module to reinforce what you are learning in this course.
Optional Resources
• WHO Disease Outbreak News

The World Health Organization (WHO) provides information on the most recent disease outbreaks around the world. Stay up to date by visiting this site.
• HealthMap: Global Disease Alert Map

Explore this interactive map that lists disease outbreaks around the world.
• Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report