how loud noises affected students
A lecturer investigated how loud noises affected students’ ability to concentrate. The lecturer used students from his own college and selected a random sample of 50 students from class registers to participate in the study. All of the students chosen agreed to take part. The students selected were split into two equal groups. Each group was placed in a different classroom on a different floor for a period of 30 minutes. Both groups were given simple memory tests to complete. One group was subjected to continuous loud noises from speakers in the classroom while they completed the tests. The other group completed the tests in a quiet room. The study found that those students who sat the tests while exposed to loud noise performed poorly compared to those who completed the tests in a quiet room.
(a) The above scenario uses the experimental method of research. Describe the experimental method of research. 6 0 2
(b) Identify the two conditions of the independent variable in the above scenario. (c) State a suitable hypothesis for the study described above. (d) Explain one strength of a laboratory experiment. (e) (i) Describe what is meant by random sampling.
(ii) Describe another sampling method that could have been used in the study. (f) The above scenario appears to have poor “ecological validity”. What is meant by this term?
(g) Explain one ethical consideration that should be taken into account in this study.
SECTION C THE INDIVIDUAL IN THE SOCIAL CONTEXT Answer TWO questions from this Section.
Marks ku ae
Answer question C1, and ONE other question chosen from questions C2–C4. Answer ALL PARTS of question C1. C1. Personality (a) (i) What is meant by a “trait” in personality? (ii) Describe one example of a trait. 2 0 2 0
(b) Freud stated that there were five psychosexual stages of personality development. Name and describe the first two of these stages. 6 0 0 2 2 0 2 0 2 0 0 2 (20) Answer ONE question from questions C2 – C4. Answer ALL PARTS of the question you choose. C2. Group processes (a) Describe two factors that can affect group cohesiveness. 4 0
(c) What behaviour might we expect to see in an adult who is fixated in the oral stage of psychosexual development? (d) (i) Name the two dimensions that Eysenck said were the basis of normal personality. (ii) Describe the characteristics associated with one of these dimensions. (e) What is meant by validity in personality testing? (f) Explain one situation where a personality test may be used.
(b) Explain one consequence that can occur if someone does not conform to group norms. (c) (i) Describe what is meant by an informal group. (ii) Give one example of an informal group.
(d) Adjourning is the last stage in Tuckman’s five stages of group development. Name and describe the first four stages.
(e) What is meant by the term “groupthink”?
OR C3. Non-verbal communication (NVC) (a) Define the term “paralanguage”. (b) Describe what is meant by: (i) verbal communication; (ii) non-verbal communication. (c) Describe the role of nature in the development of NVC.
(d) Describe and evaluate one research study that has investigated NVC. Your answer should include: • • • • • • researcher’s name(s) aims/what was studied procedure results conclusions evaluation.
(e) Describe two cultural differences in NVC. OR C4. Altruism (a) Define the term “altruism”.
(b) (i) In bystander behaviour what is meant by “victim characteristics”? (ii) State two victim characteristics. (c) What is meant by the term “bystander apathy”?
(d) Describe and evaluate one research study that has investigated altruism. Your answer should include: • researcher’s name(s) • • • • • aims/what was studied procedure results conclusions evaluation.
(e) Describe the cost-reward analysis of altruistic behaviour. [END OF SECTION C] [END OF QUESTION PAPER] [X263/11/01] Page seven
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