Cicero and Letter-writing
Answer all the questions. (Note: there are two options in question 4.) 1. Consider letter 5 by Cicero (Prescribed Text, pages 13–14). (a) Look at line 1 (ain tandem). What does Cicero imply Atticus was complaining about? (b) Look at lines 2– 3 (urgebar . . . exemplar). Give two reasons why Cicero had not been able to do as Atticus wished. (c) Look at line 4 (circumrodo . . . subturpicula). Explain how each of the following expressions conveys the impression that Cicero has been forced to act against his will: (i) circumrodo quod devorandum est; (ii) subturpicula. (d) Look at lines 6–8 (non est . . . iis). (i) In these lines and in the letter as a whole Cicero expresses a sense of betrayal. By whom and over what issues? (ii) In what way does the arrangement of the words in line 8 (senseram . . . iis) convey the speed of events? 5 2 4 2 2 Marks
Consider letters 7, 8 and 9 by Cicero (Prescribed Text, pages 17– 19). (a) Look at letter 7, lines 8–9 (coepi . . . te). Give two reasons why Trebatius would wish to work for Caesar in Gaul. (b) Look at letter 7, lines 11–34 (casus . . . manum). (i) In these lines, Cicero uses the following expressions: testis (line 12); haec spondeo (line 24); de manu . . . in manum (lines 33–34) Why is this type of vocabulary appropriate to find in a letter discussing Trebatius? (ii) Why should the references to Balbus (lines 13 and 18) help to persuade Caesar to employ Trebatius? (c) Look at letter 8. (i) Lines 4–6 (tu modo . . . consequere) explain a problem Trebatius has experienced in Gaul. What was the problem and what advice does Cicero offer him? You should refer to the text in your answer. (ii) In line 11 (multi suam . . . procul), Cicero quotes advice from a different source. What was the source and what was the advice? 1 2 2
Marks 2. (continued) (d) Look at letter 9, lines 6–12 (id si . . . singularem). Since Trebatius’ time in Britain has not proved successful, Cicero gives three more pieces of advice. Explain the points Cicero is making in each. (i) lines 6–7 (essedum . . . recurras) (ii) lines 8–9 (perfice . . . Caesaris) (iii) lines 10–12 (habes . . . singularem) 3
Consider letters 21 and 22 by Pliny (Prescribed Text, pages 39–41) and letter 35, lines 10–69 (This is . . . dignity) by Seneca (Prescribed Text, pages 65–67). Each of these three letters takes the Roman dinner as its focus. (i) Consider each letter separately and explain how the writer brings the Roman dinner to life. You should make reference to the text in your answer. (ii) Which of these three letters do you prefer? Give reasons for your answer.
EITHER (a) “The main charm of Pliny’s letters is the variety of subject-matter and his interest in and enjoyment of everyday life.” How far would you agree with this statement? Are the letters of Cicero and Seneca equally charming for similar reasons or do they offer a different sort of attraction? You should discuss the letters of all three authors in your answer and support your answer with reference to the text. OR (b) Which do you prefer, the lighter, conversational style of Cicero and Pliny or the serious, formal style of Seneca? You should discuss the letters of all three authors in your answer and support your answer with reference to the text.
(scaled to 100)
[Turn over for Section B
OR SECTION B—Ovid and Latin Love-poetry Answer all the questions. (Note: there are two options in question 4.) 1. Consider poem 9 by Ovid (Prescribed Text, page 92–93). (a) Look at line 1. What is the theme of this poem? (b) Look at lines 4 –16 (turpe . . . nives). In what ways are both love and war unsuitable for the elderly? (c) Look at lines 33–38 (ardet . . . comis). Which war is Ovid taking his examples from? Explain two of the stories referred to. (d) Look at lines 41– 46 (ipse . . . amet). What effect has love had on Ovid’s character and lifestyle? Refer to the text in your answer. 4 4 6 1 Marks
Consider poem 14 by Ovid (Prescribed Text, pages 100–101). (a) Look at line 1. Ovid addresses Livor edax. Translate this phrase. (b) Look at lines 3–6 (non . . . foro). What two occupations does Ovid not wish to pursue? For what two reasons does he totally reject the second? Refer to the text in your answer. (c) Look at lines 25–26 (Tityrus . . . erit). Which poet is Ovid referring to? How long does he claim this poet’s works will last? (d) Look at lines 31–32 (ergo . . . carent). Name one of the items that poetry will outlive. (e) Look at lines 35–37 (vilia . . . myrtum). What imagery does Ovid use here to emphasise his role as a poet? (f) Look at line 39. Ovid returns to Livor. What final comment does he make about it? 1 2 1 2 4 1
Marks 2. (continued) Consider also poem 32 by Propertius (Prescribed Text, page 122) and poem 39 by Tibullus (Prescribed Text, page 136). (g) Look at lines 22–27 of poem 32 (Then . . . high) and lines 11–20 of poem 39 (Now . . . powerless). Do Propertius and Tibullus share the same view of poetry as Ovid? Explain your answer. 4
Consider poem 15 by Ovid (Prescribed Text, pages 101–103). (a) Look at lines 1–6 (Parrot . . . lament) and 59–62 (His . . . bird). If these lines set the tone for the poem, what must that be? Refer to the text to support your answer. (b) Explain any three of the following references from mythology: the ancient crime of Tereus (line 7); Orestes of Argos (line 15); Thersites and Protesilaus (line 41); Hector (line 41); Juno’s peacock (line 55). Consider also poem 21 by Catullus (Prescribed Text, page 111). (c) Many readers today consider Catullus’ poem far superior to Ovid’s. Do you agree? Support your answer with reference to both texts. 6 3
EITHER (a) “The attraction of Roman love-poetry for a modern reader lies not in its happy moments but in its ‘problem-page’ anxieties.” Discuss this statement with reference to the poems of three of the poets you have studied. Support your answer with reference to the text. OR (b) What do you think you have learned about the lives of Roman women from the love-poems you have read? Have you learned more from some poets than from others? Discuss the poems of three or more of the poets you have studied. Support your answer with reference to the text. 20
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